Stoics: there is only the fiery Logos and its providence
Epicureans: there is only the atoms and the void
Aristotle: there is exactly five elements and earth is at the center of all the elements
Plato: there is only abstract entities and matter is an illusion
Skeptics: it is impossible to know what is
Diogenes the Cynic: there is only this barrel. It’s a really nice urn, it keeps me sheltered at night. It’s made of the finest ceramic.

The Divine

Plato: There is the Divine Good (or the One), which is the greatest of the Forms. There is also the Demiurge which fashioned the imperfect material universe.

Aristotle: There is the Unmoved Mover, a completely Formal being that is completely actualized that all objects in the universe try to become and actualize towards.

Epicureans: The Gods exist and are made up of atoms. Everything is made up of atoms and the void.

Stoics: There is a completely material universe with a fiery reasoning substance called Logos that pervades all of it. In short, you can call the Universe God.

Cynics: did someone mention DOG? I like dogs. They’re very important beings to emulate.



Plato: Properties like white and red are universals that exist beyond material objects but they do participate in them.

Aristotle: Properties like white and red are universals that exist only in material objects.

Stoics: Properties like white and red are just words we give a collection of white and red objects. At best they exist in the mind.
Diogenes: I pissed off Plato the other day. I plucked a chicken and took it to the Academy and said, “this is your featherless biped.” His face went from white to red.